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Lesson 30 Adventures of Ideas 大胆的想法-第四册笔记新版

Source:     2007-11-03  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  

Each civilization is born, it culminates, and it decays. There is a widespread estimony that this ominous fact is due to inherent biological defects in the crowded life of cities. Now, slowly and at first faintly, an opposite tendency is showing itself. Better roads and better vehicles at first induced the wealthier classes to live on the outskirts of the cities. The urgent need for defence had also vanished. This tendency is now spreading rapidly downwards. But a new set of conditions is just showing itself. Up to the present time, throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this new tendency placed the home in the immediate suburbs, but concentrated manufacturing activity, Business relations, government, and pleasure in the centres of the cities. Apart from the care of children and periods of sheer rest, the active lives were spent in the cities. In some ways the concentration of such activities was even more emphasized, and the Homes were pushed outwards even at the cost of the discomfort of commuting. But, if we examine the trend of technology during the past generation, the reasons for this concentration are largely disappearing. Still more, the reasons for the choice of sites for cities are also altering. Mechanical power can be transmitted for hundreds of miles, men can communicate almost instantaneously by telephone, the chiefs of great organizations can be transported by airplanes, the cinemas can produce plays in every village, music, speeches, and sermons can be broadcast. Almost every reason for the growth of the cities,concurrently with the growth of civilization has been profoundly modified.

New words and expressions 生词短语

本课与 20 课相类似
 鼓起精神 take heart 振作起来 beef up
Ⅰ、words
▲culminate vi.鼎盛,达到顶点
n.culmination n.(顶点,多用做抽象意义)/summit n.顶峰/peak/top
He reaches/attains the culmination in his thirties.他三十岁达到了顶峰。
久久发彩票_[官网首页]His efforts culminate in his success.他的努力终于使他成功了。(culmite=lead to
His efforts culminate in the prosperity of his family.
His efforts culminate in failure.他的努力付诸东流。
His excessive drinking culminates in his moral degeneration/decay.他的过度饮酒导致他道德败

mend one's morals 改过自新
decayvt 衰亡,腐烂
同义词:rot 见第二课
 My health decays.我的身体江河日下。
久久发彩票_[官网首页]Tooth decays.牙齿咬不动东西了。
testimony n 证据=evidence testmen n.证人 testify v.
Bear/produce the testimony to his innocence.我证明他无罪。
oral 证词/verbal 证词/ material 物证
▲inherentadj 固有的
the sloth that inherent in him 天生的懒惰
inbred 天生的 inbuilt 嵌入的 ingrain 根深蒂固的 deep-rooted 根深蒂固的
faintlyadv 不明显的
faint 微弱的
久久发彩票_[官网首页]The light is so faint.光线太暗。
I fainted.我晕了过去。
tendencyn 倾向
I have the tendency to shop.我是个购物狂。
I have the tendency to smoke/read.我是个烟鬼/书迷
trend 潮流/inclination(自己的)倾向 /current 潮流(更常用)
vanish
vi 消失见 26 课
▲a set of一批后只跟 sth 不跟 sb
a set of rules 一系列规则/a set of equipmeng 一套设备/a set of furniture 一套家具/a set of short
stories 短篇小说集
▲sheeradj 纯粹的
sheer brandy 纯白兰地/sheer liar 大骗子/sheer rubbish 一派胡言
emphasize vt 强调 n.emphasis
place/lay/put emphsis……on
We have to place emphasis on construction of civilization.我们要加强文明建设。
同义词:underline/spotlight
at the cost of 以……位代价=at the ptice of =sactifice v.牺牲,n 牲
I learn English at the cost of my holidays.
▲commuteadv 即刻地 n.commuter 通勤者/commuter time/rush hour 上下班时间
There is a New York or commuters devoured by locusts in the day and spit out at night.
久久发彩票_[官网首页]It's commuter time,I will go.要下班了,我要走了。
instantaneously adv.即刻地
instant noodles 方便面,快餐面
in no time 快,很快
I will come in no time.我马上回来。
sermonn 布道
preach a sermon by a priest 牧师布道
▲profoundly adv 深刻地
profound theory 深奥的理论
bid for Olympics 申奥
profound sleep 死睡/sleep like a log 睡得像猪/eat like a dog
Notes on the text 课文注释
This is about civilization and industry.That is the association between industry and civilization.
Each civilization is born( 产生), it culminates, and it decays①. There is a widespread testimony that this ominous(ominous 不吉祥地) fact is due to② inherent biological defects(biological defect 生物地缺陷,指前文中的产生、发展、灭亡的过程) in the crowded life of cities③. Now, slowly and at first faintly, an opposite tendency④ is showing itself⑤. Better roads and better vehicles ⑥at first induced the wealthier classes to live on the outskirts of the cities. The urgent need ⑦for defence had also vanished. This tendency is now spreading rapidly downwards⑧. But a new set of conditions is just showing itself. Up to the present time, throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this new tendency placed the Home in the immediate suburbs⑨, but concentrated manufacturing activity, Business relations(商业贸易), government, and pleasure in
the centres of the cities. Apart from(除了) the care of children and periods of sheer rest, the active lives (活动生活,主要生活)were spent in the cities. In some ways(在某些方式上而言) the concentration of such activities was even more emphasized, and the Homes were pushed outwards even at the cost of the discomfort (:menace,威胁,不舒适) commuting. But, if weof examine(探究) the trend of technology during the past generation, the reasons for this concentration(指前文 relations 、government, and pleasure ) largely disappearing. Still more,are the reasons for the choice of sites for cities are also altering.(下文解释说明) Mechanical power can be transmitted for hundreds of miles, men can communicate almost instantaneously by telephone, the chiefs of great organizations can be transported by airplanes, the cinemas can produce plays in every village, music, speeches, and sermons can be broadcast. Almost every reason for the growth of the cities, concurrently with the growth of civilization has been profoundly modified.
①例句:A man is born,he culminates/grows up,and he decays/dies.
②due to=becouse of,而 due to 多指不好之意
Due to my carelessness/drinking/overspeeding
③本句看试与首句不相关联,但前句中的 civilization 城市生活多半代表了文明的含义,而countryside 多有 backward(落后)、supersitious (迷信的),故由前句讲到本句的城市生活。
④opposite tendency 相反的倾向,指与城市生活拥挤不堪相反
⑤showing itself 显露迹象
  suggest itself
As time goes on,the adwantage of my sound English is showing itself.随着时光流逝,我良好的英语功底终于派上用场了!
⑥vehide(in Britain)/lorry or motocar,automobile(in America)
induce 归纳 from every point to the center
induced=attracted
outskirts:it is only within the city but actually it is outer city
⑦urgent need 迫切需求,指人们开始搬到市郊居住,使得城市的应急防护就显得不必要了
⑧downwards 向下转移
I am Homeward.我朝家里走去。
I am schoolward.我上学去。
I am eastward.我向东走去
I am restaurantward.我吃饭去。
I am bridgeward.我向桥上走去。
久久发彩票_[官网首页]I am bookstoreward.我买书去。
⑨ city-outskirts-suburb:expansion outward 向外扩展
 immediate:近的,接近的
 immediate goal 近期目标
 long term goal 长期目标
 immediate boss 顶头上司
 concentrate 集中,若后接抽象内容则需加 on,具体事物则不必。
 concentrate on my studies 集中学习
作者:A.N Whitehead(1861-1947),a philosopher
1924,he became the professor of University of Havard.He wrote a very famous book'principia of
mathematic'与人合著者(coauthors)
giant in philosophy 哲学巨人
the greatest logician 最伟大地逻辑学家
If you roll off my log, I will roll off yours.你捧我,我也捧你。
本单元:lesson24、29、26、27、28(注重句型)需详细解读。


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